Surgical treatment of severe bleeding from the nose

Epistaxis is one of the commonest ENT emergencies. Although most patients can be treated within an accident and emergency setting, some are complex and may require specialist intervention. There are multiple risk factors for the development of epistaxis and it can affect any age group, but it is the elderly population with their associated morbidity who often require more intensive treatment and subsequent admission. Treatment strategies have been broadly similar for decades. However, with the evolution of endoscopic technology, new ways of actively managing epistaxis are now available. Recent evidence suggests that this, combined with the use of stepwise management plans, should limit patient complications and the need for admission. This review discusses the various treatment options and integrates the traditional methods with modern techniques.

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Large blood vessel before and after coagulation with electrocauter

Coagulation with argentum nitricum acid

Coagulation of large blood vessel with electrocauter

Coagulation of sphenopalatine artery

Anterior ethmoidal artery

Anatomy of sphenopalatine artery on cadaver